Beginning in the fifteenth century, the Scientific Revolution transformed the way humans viewed the natural world. Galileo Galilei, sometimes called “the father of modern science,” was one of the towering intellectual figures of this time. Remembered today as the astronomer who discovered the moons of Jupiter, Galileo was also a mathematician, philosopher, and inventor. His dedication to scientific truth led him into conflict with doctrines of the Catholic Church, however, and he was notoriously found guilty of heresy by the Inquisition. This biography demonstrates how Galileo’s commitment to scientific inquiry despite official opposition remains relevant to the present day.